بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
نحمده و نصلي و نسلم على رسوله الكريم
و على آله و اصحابه اجمعين
Throughout the course of history, the acquisition of knowledge concerning matters beyond general man's reach has always been a coveted treasure, for which scholars, philosophers, astronomers, scientists, etc. devoted great portions of their lives. The results of their research and experience was forever to be appreciated and considered as aids for those that would strive in these fields in later years.
Due to much of their views however being based upon assumption, the scope for error would always be present. Thus, no aspect of these sciences would ever achieve a mantle described as 'the absolute truth'. Wherever and whenever theories of science and philosophy would stand in contradiction to clear-cut knowledge derived from the Quraan and the Sunnah these scientific and philosophical theories would be out-rightly refuted.
During the Abbasid era, when the writings of the ancient Greek philosophers were translated into Arabic and promoted, simple-minded Muslims as well as many so called 'intellectual Muslims' were thrown into the deception of regarding Greek philosophy as an absolute truth, in the light of which verses of the Quraan and the Ahadith should be interpreted. Through the efforts of many Muslim scholars, the hold of philosophy over the minds and hearts of the general Muslim public was finally broken, and Islam emerged as the sole winner.
With the renaissance, from the 14th century onwards the superiority of human intellect and classical philosophy over the teachings of the Bible became firmly embedded in the minds and hearts of the Christian masses. People would continue visiting the churches and celebrating their religious festivals, but within their hearts and minds a humanistic, atheistic inclination was predominant. Any teaching of the Bible that was found contrary to scientific research would be either totally ignored or interpreted in accordance to the demands of 'modern science'. Religious books were no longer afforded the mantle of being a source of 'true knowledge', but were rather kept aside as a mere item of 'blessings, to be recited on occasions of joy or of mourning. When Christian 'intellectuals' found the teachings of the Bible in conflict with 'modern research' doubts against their faith arose, and when they found their religious elders unable to reply satisfactorily to these conflicting narrations their doubts turned into anger and resentment towards their faith. Thus, through the avenue of 'scientific thought and research’ the authority of the Bible over the minds and hearts of its adherents collapsed and the authority of 'supreme science' took its place.
Changing theories regarding the solar system
For example, prior to the 14th century the theory of the sun being at the center of the universe was a minority view. Pythagoras of Samos, a philosopher, who lived presumably about 500 years B.C, is the first under record to have promoted the view of the sun being stationary, at the center of the universe, and that the earth revolves around it as one of its satellites.
In the second century, A.C. Claudius Ptolemy of Alexandria refuted the theory of Pythagoras and re-affirmed the ancient theory of the earth being stationary at the center of the universe, and that the sun, the moon and the stars revolve around it, as instruments to give it light. This theory remained as the 'only-mentioned' theory until 1543.
In 1543, Nicolaus Copernicus, re-introduced the theory of Pythagoras to the world and in a book of his, De Revolutionibus Orbium', published just before his death, detailed the reasons of his giving preference to the view of Pythagoras over that of Ptolemy. In the preface of the book, however the following confession was made, either by himself or by one of his 'anonymous friends':
'It is not necessary that hypotheses should be true or even probable. It is sufficient that they lead to results of calculation which agree with calculation………Neither let anyone, so far as hypotheses are concerned, expect anything certain from Astronomy, since that science can afford nothing of the kind!
This then was the beginning of the theory regarding the sun being stationary at the center of the universe, around which all planets and stars rotate. The promoter of this theory made it clear that it was a mere theory, for which there existed no solid proof.
Copernicus died of a cerebral hemorrhage on May 24, 1543. His writings soon created controversy in European scientific and religious circles by challenging many beliefs that had become religious dogma since the end of the Classical Era a thousand years before.
The theory of Copernicus was promoted further by Galileo Galilei and Isaac Newton, who added on to it the theory of 'universal gravity'. Pythagoras, Copernicus, Galileo and Isaac Newton all considered the sun stationary, and for many years thereafter, other astronomers followed suit. It was a view that had no initial solid proof, nor did it ever find any solid proof thereafter. It was merely because of 'great thinkers' accepting the theory that made it an 'irrefutable theory'.
The truth that the 'proven theory' of Copernicus and Isaac Newton was not 'proven' at all would surface in 1783, when William Hershel would announce his 'discovery' that the sun actually does move, a fact which had already been explicitly detailed in the Noble Quraan and even in the texts of the previous scriptures.
William Herschel however was not prepared to distance himself from the views of his masters, Copernicus and Isaac Newton. He thus created a theory that kept the sun in the center of the universe, with all other planets rotating around it. As for where the sun was then going to be moving, he offered the 'well-researched' theory of the sun travelling towards an infinitely distant star in the constellation, known as 'Hercules'!
In 1846, Mudler, a skillful German astronomer, put forth the 'idea' that there indeed exists some central point around which the sun, with its many planets and comets, revolves in the course of millions of years. He 'suggested' that such a center is situated in the direction of Alcyone, the brightest star of the Pleiades. Through his 'theory' he made it quite clear that the previous theory of Hershel, as well as his new theory was indeed nothing but a theory, despite it being promoted as though it was based upon solid evidence.
From the above one can understand that from Pythagoras to Mudler, whatever 'scientific' theories would surface were nothing ever but 'theories' and assumptions, some of which were to be totally rejected, due to its being in open conflict with explicit texts of the Quraan and the Sunnah, whilst others could be considered as a 'possibility' that requires investigation. More than that, the theories of these few 'thinkers' carried no real weight, and until today, that is the reality of their theories.
The Arab renaissance
The Arab renaissance (al-Baath - البعث and al-Nahdah - النهدة) began in Egypt in the 19th century and from there spread to the Ottoman-ruled Arabic speaking regions of Lebanon, Syria, etc. The modus-operandi was exactly the same as that of the European renaissance, except that in this case the goal was to remove the Noble Quraan from its position of being 'the Final and Absolute Truth' and 'The Supreme Authority' and to shift it to being a Holy Book, to be read beautifully at occasions of joy and of mourning, but not to be studied and propagated. The Arab renaissance poisoned the minds of millions with the thought that adhering to the principles and teachings of the Quraan and the Sunnah in the 'modern era' would only hamper further the Muslim world's efforts in competing with the rest of Europe in the fields of technology, space exploration, military advancements, etc.
Here too the authority of 'modern science' was utilized as a tool to weaken the conviction that the Muslim world had always held over every verse of the Noble Quraan. Through the medium of the international media such theories would be propagated as 'accepted facts' amongst the masses, which were considered absurd and laughable just a few years previously.
Those theories which were in total conflict with explicit verses of the Noble Quraan were openly refuted by the scholars, thus saving the faith of millions. Examples of such theories include the view promoted by Charles Darwin regarding the evolution of man from an ape; the initial theory of modern science concerning the sun being stationary; the theory of a 'big bang', which 'co-incidentally' brought the entire world into existence, with nothing being in existence prior to that.
As for those theories of modern science, which were not found to be in total conflict to explicit verses of the Noble Quraan, certain scholars chose to consider it and attempt to reconcile between it and texts of the Quraan and the Sunnah, which indicated, to a conflicting view. The method chosen for re-conciliation was to regard these apparently conflicting texts of the Quraan and the Sunnah to be figurative.
An example of this, amongst many others would be those texts, which indicate to the rising of the sun from the east of the earth and the setting of the sun in the west. These texts would be explained as 'texts revealed in accordance to how the general man perceives it'. What this means is that since man was instructed in the Quraan to understand the power of Almighty Allah by pondering over the 'perceived' systematic movement of the sun over the earth, it was only appropriate to make indication to the movement of the sun in accordance to how the general man understand it. Had indication been made to the deep reality of the sun, i.e. that its rising and setting is only a perceived notion, and it is in fact on account of the earth's revolving around its own axis, as well as around the sun, that we perceive the sun to be rising and setting, had such an explanation of the sun been given in the Quraan, the desired purpose of it being a 'sign' of the might of Almighty Allah would not have been attained. Rather, the general man would then mock at the verses concerning the sun, and instead of recognizing Allah through it, it would become the cause of their drifting even further away from Allah.
What is necessary to understand however, that is this reconciliation was made based on the theory of 'modern science' being established through strong, reliable proofs. If this theory is one day proven incorrect, the need for this reconciliation would cease to exist and the texts would again be understood in the literal sense.
Another example of such a theory is that of man living upon all sides of a global earth, through the concept of 'gravity'. This theory in essence does not conflict with any explicit text of the Quraan or of the established sunnah, thus it is a theory that may be considered and conflicting texts may be explained in a figurative manner for the purpose of reconciliation.
Yes, if any of the offshoots and the demands of these modern-day theories are later found to contradict the explicit texts of the Quraan and the established sunnah, it shall then be discarded and full reliance shall be declared upon what Almighty Allah and His truthful messenger, Muhammad Sallalahu Alaihi wa Sallam conveyed to us.
Of recent years, unfortunately, we find many innocent Muslim minds, which have for years been indoctrinated with the lie that every claim of 'science' is a 'proven, well established and irrefutable fact, finding it difficult to accept that a created, visible sky does indeed exist. The basis of their doubt is merely because of the existence of a visible, created sky not fitting in fully with modern science's theory of the nature of earth.
Similarly, they find themselves doubting the verses and texts discussing the jinn and their regular travels to the sun and to the sky. They base their doubts upon the fact that according to modern science the sun is too far away for the jinn to reach quickly, and since there is no sky, according to modern science, the journey of the jinn towards it is also questionable.
Full reliance upon 'theories of modern science' was instrumental in collapsing the position that the church once held in the hearts and minds of its adherents. Describing the rule of the church as the 'dark ages' modern science introduced its adherents to a new set of beliefs, which appeared to be much more closer to the truth in comparison to the hundreds of lies that the leaders of the church would preach. The fact of the matter however was that through the poison injected by the 'theories' of modern science the adherents of a faith that to a certain extent did believe in Almighty Allah were now thrown into the abyss of atheism, and that was soon to be followed by Satanism.
A similar trend is being observed amongst Muslim youngsters, especially those who have developed an admiration for western sciences. They live under the misconception that the Noble Quraan is merely a Divine Book that teaches good character and is full of blessings. As for scientific facts, they claim that this is not the field of the texts of the Quraan and the Sunnah. They foolishly believe that issues relating to the human body, the earth and its surroundings, and the space beyond earth are matters regarding which 'modern science' is the sole judge. Thus, if verses of the Quraan or texts of the Ahadith contradict any 'research' of 'modern science', these should be interpreted in a way that reconciles it with science. If such reconciliation is not possible, these texts, despite being explicit in its meaning, should be ignored. May Almighty Allah save us all from such deceptions. Amin.
Finding this sad situation at our doorstep the need has indeed arisen for scholars to elaborate regarding those theories of modern science that totally contradict the Quraan and the authentic Sunnah. Foremost amongst which is the theory of evolution as explained by Charles Darwin and the issue regarding the existence of a visible sky that serves as a roof for earth.
As for other issues, such as whether man resides upon all sides of a global earth or not; whether the earth is stationary or in motion; whether the earth rotates around the sun or vice-versa; whether the moon has its own light or is a mere reflection of the sun; whether the sun does rise from the east or not; etc . These are indeed not matters which in essence could affect one's faith, but due to the theories modern science holds regarding these matters presently being used to create doubts in other connected aspects, for which explicit verses of Quraan or texts of authentic Ahadith are found, there is definitely a need to loudly emphasise that modern scientific theories are in no way 'proven beyond doubt facts'. Rather they are mere theories, which change every few years. Besides mathematical calculations and computer-generated ideas and thoughts, there is no solid proof for most of these theories, if not all. Thus, any doubt created concerning established beliefs because of any of these scientific theories should not be considered at all. Rather the theory should either be discarded totally or interpreted in a manner that allows it to reconcile with already established beliefs and principles.
In the following pages light shall be shed, Insha-Allah, upon a few of the issues mentioned above, so that the reader may realise which theories of modern science are in total contradiction to Islamic beliefs, as well as realise the weak-nature of the 'proofs' and 'research' of modern science.
May Almighty Allah make it beneficial for all and may He, through our weak efforts, safeguard our faith as well as that of our spouses, children and progeny. Amin.
 The Pleiades, also known as the Seven Sisters and Messier 45, are an open star cluster containing middle-aged, hot B-type stars located in the constellation of Taurus. It is among the star clusters nearest Earth and is the cluster most obvious to the naked eye in the night sky.